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Applying ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction through a ridge-to-reef approach

Haiti Port Salut

An ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction approach was implemented in Port Salut using a ridge-to-reef approach that included inland and coastal revegetation and improving the sustainability of local fisheries. 

Nature-based Intervention:

In an effort to bolster community and ecosystem resilience, the Côte Sud Initiative (CSI) together with the UN Environment Programme worked together to implement an ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) initiative using a ridge-to-reef approach. The ridge-to-reef approach constitutes a portfolio of interventions that cover the entire landscape from hills to sea in an effort to boost overall ecosystem resilience. More specifically, the project implemented three specific actions. First, re-vegetation and more sustainable vetiver farming was introduced and expanded to reduce the risk of upland erosion and inland flooding. Second, coastal areas underwent significant revegetation in order to strengthen the area’s biological buffer against storm surges and flooding. In practical support of these first two interventions, a tree nursery was established producing 137,000 seedlings of coastal and riparian species and fruit trees. As a result, 141 hectares were reforested with 54,065 fruit and forestry trees planted on and around riverbanks to reduce soil and riverbank erosion and 36,300 mangroves and sea grape trees planted on the shoreline and river mouths to mitigate storm surge and flood risk. Lastly, more sustainable fisheries management has been implemented including the reparation of fishing boats to allow fishers to fish in deeper waters and, as a result, reduce pressure on near-shore ecosystems.

Overview of context and outcomes:

The Port Salut municipality in Haiti is becoming increasingly vulnerable to more frequent and extreme coastal risks including sea level rise and storm surges. Port Salut has also been designated as one of Haiti’s first marine protected areas. These actions have all been supported by larger-scale capacity building and advocacy efforts across the country promoting Eco-DRR and marine protected area management.

Case effectiveness on

Climate change

Mitigation: Not reported
Adaptation: Positive

The interventions reportedly reduced people’s exposure to coastal hazards, in particular storm surges and coastal flooding. The locally managed early warning system established to better prepare for storms and hurricanes is also predicted to reduce the magnitude of harmful impacts caused by these events.

Ecosystem health

Ecological effect: Positive

Reforestation activities were reported to have helped reduce sedimentation run-off in near-shore coastal and marine ecosystems like coral reefs and seagrass beds, for example, a challenge which was found to have contributed to their degradation prior to the intervention.

Socioeconomic outcomes

150 local community members reportedly received training on coastal species nursery management from the Ministry of Environment and local community leaders. More than 100 community members were provided with temporary employment to support in the land preparation necessary for the interventions to take place.


This project encompasses multiple dimensions and works through weaving together local, national, and international governance bodies. By working between these branches they can work to strength coastal governance at the municipal level to increase direct responses to local issues.


The restoration project was financed by the European Commission and the Government of Norway. Funding from the Global Environment Facility was also used and helped set up the marine protected area.

Monitoring and evaluation

The Ministry of Environment of Haiti worked with local landowners to set up a tree monitoring program, to have the local communities monitor the restoration efforts. UNEP also set up a soil monitoring program in the area to track erosion.

Trade-offs and limitations

There are limitations in the projects ability to strengthen local governance due to finite technical capacities and resources within Municipal Governments in Haiti.

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Vetiver grass close up
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Intervention type

  • Created habitats
  • Food production
  • Restoration
Targets poor/disadvantaged
Conducted at landscape scale

Ecosystem type

  • Created grassland
  • Coastal
  • Mangroves

Climate change impacts addressed

  • Coastal erosion
  • Coastal inundation
  • Storm surge


  • State/district/local government agency
  • International conservation/environment organization
  • Other
  • National government/agency

Societal challenges

  • Biodiversity conservation
  • Climate change adaptation
  • Disaster risk reduction
  • Economic and Social development
  • Rights/empowerment/equality


  • Food security: Not reported
  • Water security: Not reported
  • Health: Not reported
  • Local economics: Positive
  • Livelihoods/goods/basic needs: Not reported
  • Energy security: Not reported
  • Disaster risk reduction: Positive
  • Rights/empowerment/equality: Positive
  • Conflict and security: Not reported
  • No. developmental outcomes reported: 5


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Literature info

  • Grey literature
Case methodology not reported