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Indigenous council practices community-based conservation and natural resource management

Bolivia Abel Iturralde Province in the La Paz Department

An indigenous council representing the communities of an exceptionally biodiverse region of the central Tropical Andes, has successfully gained a collective title to manage several hundred thousand hectares of land. This collective land title allows for greater control and management purview to the original stewards of the land that continue to practice sustainable natural resource management, monitor endangered species, and promote sustainable livelihoods.

The Consejo Indígena del Pueblo Tacana (CIPTA), or Indigenous Council of the Tacana People, established in 1992 brought a land claim to the Bolivian government and managed to obtain a collective land title to manage 389,303 hectares of forest and savanna. Predating the Inca empire, the Tacana people have resided on this land. The region contains 11 different forest and savanna ecosystems not yet represented in other areas protected by the government. Therefore, proper management of these areas is vital for the survival of these ecosystems, in particular the embedded wildlife that includes 51 endangered plant and animal species. Despite significant deforestation pressures, the Tacana people have managed to preserve traditional land and natural resource management principles protecting the integrity of the land. The management framework of the land title continues this legacy by prioritising biodiversity conservation, forest protection, and the establishment of sustainable livelihood options for the twenty communities that live in the territory. More precisely, CIPTA engages in monitoring of endangered species, coordinated planning of current and future land uses, stricter hunting regulations, and the implementation of various disaster prevention mechanisms including the restoration of native crop varieties and relocating chicken runs and other animal enclosures to higher altitudes less vulnerable to flooding. The CIPTA has also created 24 community-based associations to both conduct and live off of agroforestry, ecotourism, cocoa production, and sustainable caiman hunting enterprises. Furthermore, to raise the level of participation of women in community works, an independent women’s organisation has been established. The Tacana territory encompassed by this land title is a well-known hotspot for biodiversity and connects several habitats with the protected area of Madidi. Therefore, CIPTA’s work to maintain and increase the connectivity of the habitats under its land title with surrounding areas upholds the biodiversity present and focuses on its preservation and improved health.

Case effectiveness on

Climate change

Mitigation: Positive

A 25% reduction in deforestation has been reported compared to rates in neighboring areas. Projections estimated by CIPTA and the Wildlife Conservation Society suggest that the emission reductions associated with this avoided deforestation could equal 13 million tons of CO2 if the current management techniques continue.

Adaptation: Positive

The adaptive capacity of local communities and ecosystems is likely to have increased due to a reported reduction in forest loss in flood-prone areas at risk of erosion.

Ecosystem health

Ecological effect: Positive

CIPTA has reported that deforestation in the Tacana-managed territory is 4.6 times lower than in surrounding unmanaged areas since the implementation of the management plan. This avoided deforestation is reported to have improved forest and habitat connectivity likely allowing for better dispersal of fauna in the area.

Socioeconomic outcomes

Household income in the twenty communities in the affected territories is reported to have risen, albeit not significantly. CIPTA has reported that the profits from enterprises and sustainable livelihoods adopted have led to a greater investment in infrastructure and healthcare expenses.

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Local people by a river
Photo © Amy Rollo

Intervention type

  • Food production
  • Management
Targets poor/disadvantaged
Conducted at landscape scale

Ecosystem type

  • Tropical & subtropical forests
  • Tropical & subtropical grasslands
  • Terrestrial production

Climate change impacts addressed

  • Biomass cover loss
  • Freshwater flooding


  • Local NGO or CBO (eg. indigenous)

Societal challenges

  • Biodiversity conservation
  • Climate change adaptation
  • Climate change mitigation
  • Disaster risk reduction
  • Economic and Social development
  • Health

Literature info

  • Grey literature
Case methodology not reported

External case resources

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